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Multilingualism is the use of two or more languages by a person or the society at large. “A different
language is a different vision of life” – Federico Fellini. This quote says a great deal about the importance of
knowing multiple languages in a few words.
A child is born to learn and absorb knowledge effortlessly, especially in their formative years 0-3. Learning
multiple languages comes easily to them and if they are given sufficient exposure at a young age. The ideal
age for children to start is early in their infancy and between the ages 5-8 years. The whole language
learning process leads to verbal enrichment which acts akin to a mental workout. The maximum languages
a child should learn at time should be limited to four. This is because they need to be exposed to at least
30% of their waking hours to become multilingual. Learning multiple languages at a time will use up more
time and energy leading to a burnout and confusion, which should be avoided. If started later in their teens,
children may not be as receptive to learn a new language. During their teens, they are self-conscious and
not ready to accept their mistakes easily, thus it may be discouraging for them to give it a try. Therefore,
the best approach is to start as early as possible.
Various ways to help a child be multilingual-
1) Speaking to them in different languages. In this regard the OPOL (one person one language) method is
particularly useful. Each parent/ person speaks to the child in one language thus ensuring the child learns
two or more languages at a time.
2) Reading bilingual books/ listening to audio books in multiple languages specially in an interesting and
easy to learn format.
3) Singing rhymes and songs, music CDs in varied languages making the learning process fun and hassle
4) Online resources like YouTube videos, bilingual language teaching sites etc.
5) Encourage your child to speak to friends or relatives who speak in a foreign language.
6) Find an international ‘pen pal’ or ‘e-pal’. It is a great way to learn about different cultures and languages.
Multilingualism in India:
Teaching multiple languages is a long term commitment. The joint family system prevalent here ensures
that Indian children are exposed to multiple languages since childhood making it simpler for them to learn
it. Thus, in India, children grow up learning their mother tongue, state language, national language as well
as the international language English too. If the children aren’t encouraged to learn their mother tongue,
they could lose a part of their cultural heritage which is an important link to their roots. In the West, they
have to work harder to gain the same benefits as they normally stay in nuclear families with limitations in
the usage of varied languages. In this regard, the Indian children get a kick start to become multilingual in
turn making them multicultural too.
Benefits of being multilingual
“Learning a foreign language, and the culture that goes with it, is one of the most useful things we can do to
broaden the empathy and imaginative sympathy and cultural outlook of children” ~ Michael Glove
Being multilingual has proven to help children develop superior reading, writing, listening, and cognitive
skills which helps them do well academically. They have greater math proficiency due to higher analytical
skills, concentration and abstract thinking. It has a positive impact on career prospects since being
conversant in foreign languages is an added skill in a person’s résumé. It also helps them to adapt in a new
environment while visiting a foreign nation thereby giving them a global advantage. Learning a new
language acts as an exercise for the mental muscles as it involves memorising complex grammar rules and
varied vocabulary. They are also adept listeners as they're better at detecting different sounds. Switching
between two structures comes naturally to them making them effective at multi-tasking.
In conclusion, it is believed that monolingual speakers are outnumbered by multilingual speakers in this
world which speak volumes about its importance. In the West too, people have realised the importance of
multilingualism and hence taking steps in that direction. There's nothing to lose by choosing to be
multilingual, it's a win-win situation for all.
One of the most important goals of early childhood education is the development of a child’s social aptitude- their ability to get along with others. Even at an early age, a child needs to learn how to approach other children, engage with them and communicate effectively. Research indicates that children who can develop and maintain friendships early are more likely to be successful and productive adults.
Every child is different, while some may develop social skills and make friends with ease, others may be more reserved and require more time to feel comfortable in a group. Unfortunately, children who are unable to make friends, often feel rejected and suffer from low self-esteem. Once they get into this mind set it is often difficult to break out of it.
Children can present different challenges to educators. Those who are shy or overly aggressive may find it difficult to get along with others. It is important to first identify the nature of the problem and work to overcome it with the child. By building on their strengths, you will help these children gain acceptance and develop their social skills effectively. A child’s social development is further strengthened when they have secure relationships with parents and teachers and are provided with several opportunities to interact and play with other children.
In almost every group there is a shy child. It is important however, to first observe and identify the reason behind their reserved nature before taking action. The main reasons for their shy nature could be because of genetics, upbringing of the child, and the child’s environment. Never be quick to judge them, they are bright too, but have a different perspective to life.
Below are a few tips and techniques to help shy children break out of their shell, in the classroom or outside:
o Boost their confidence by appreciating any small steps they take towards being social.
o Make sure to involve them in your conversation during class by praising their work, thereby building their self-confidence. Include them into group activities of their choice, this would help them learn from their peers and be influenced by them.
o Initially, do not force the shy child to get friendly with those they are uncomfortable with or dislike. This will further push them away from being social.
o In certain cases, it would be required to get to the root cause of the child’s inability to mix with their peers. This can be done by counselling, finding the right solution, and work towards it.
o Taking the child out to a variety of different places broadens their outlook on life and helps them become more receptive to different situations, people, and perspectives. For instance, even an outing to a garden, a mall or a market place helps them to appreciate the outdoors.
o Organizing play dates with friends from the class, school or neighbourhood can help the children emerge from their shell.
It is completely normal and acceptable for children at a young age to display shy or reserved behavior. The priority of every teacher should first be to ensure the child feels happy, secure and comfortable in their school environment. In the current age, it’s very important to be receptive to all kind of people and experiences. Within this scenario, the extroverts do have an upper hand but there is no ideal type. One size does not fit all. Introverts and extroverts complement each other to make a perfect world. To conclude, if despite all efforts, the child still doesn’t come out of his self-enclosed cocoon then it is best to let them be their own natural self and evolve into the person he/she aspires to be. That will make the child a happier and fulfilled person which is what matters the most.